MECHANIZED MULES OF VICTORY
Paul Rand: MECHANIZED MULES OF VICTORY. Ardmore, PA: The AutoCar Company, 1942. Original edition. A fine wire-bound booklet in embossed and decorated covers. Close inspection reveals a trace of edgewear. Interior unmarked and very clean. A true high point of American Graphic Design and a truly rare document.
8.5 x 11 spiral-bound booklet with embossed cover and 16 interior pages with one printed vellum sheet as frontis. Printed in two colors throughout with photography by Andreas Feininger and text copy by William (Bill) Bernbach.
Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, a pioneer typographer, photographer, and designer of the modern movement and a master at the Bauhaus in Weimar, may have come closest to defining the Rand style when he said Paul was "an idealist and a realist using the language of the poet and the businessman. He thinks in terms of need and function. He is able to analyze his problems, but his fantasy is boundless."
Most contemporary designers are aware of Paul Rand's successful and compelling contributions to advertising design. What is not well known is the significant role he played in setting the pattern for future approaches to the advertising concept. Paul was probably the first of a long and distinguished line of art directors to work with and appreciate the unique talent of William Bernbach. Paul described his first meeting with Bernbach as "akin to Columbus discovering America," and went on to say, "This was my first encounter with a copywriter who understood visual ideas and who didn't come in with a yellow copy pad and a preconceived notion of what the layout should look like."
In 1942 William Weintraub hired Bernbach as a copywriter. His first assignment was a collaboration with Rand, Weintraub's star Art Director, on a project for The AutoCar Company of Ardmore Pennsylvania. Rand had already spent some time on this project, working with Andreas Feininger to develop a visual image for the Armoured vehicle manufacturer. Frustrated by the lack of visual interest in Feininger's images, Rand developed a series of contiguous, two-page spreads divided in half along the same axis. The top half of the pages were for the images -- silhouettes, montages and repetitions to suggest movement -- the bottom half of the page was reserved for an unusually large amount of copy explaining AutoCar's manufacturing process and to complement the images.
Rand specified the text set in American Typewriter -- a most unorthodox type choice for the time. "I told Bill this was what I wanted. And he filled the space with copy. That's all he did. But it was great copy." Rand told Steven Heller in 1988. In 1942 American Printer magazine praised the design of the spiral-bound brochure as a "successful variation on the Bauhaus theme, in yellow and black typewriter type." And MECHANIZED MULES OF VICTORY was then included in just about every graphic design history, compendium and anthology that has been published since then. And that is how history is made.
If the word legend has any meaning in the graphic arts and if the term legendary can be applied with accuracy to the career of any designer, it can certainly be applied to Paul Rand (1914-1996). In 1951, the legend was already firmly in place. By then Paul had completed his first career as a designer of media promotion at Esquire-Coronet‹and as an outstanding cover designer for Apparel Arts and Directions. He was well along on a second career as an advertising designer at the William Weintraub agency which he had joined as art director at its founding. Paul Rand's book, Thoughts on Design, with reproductions of almost one hundred of his designs and some of the best words yet written on graphic design, had been published four years earlier‹a publishing event that cemented his international reputation and identified him as a designer of influence from Zurich to Tokyo.
The chronology of Paul Rand's design experience has paralleled the development of the modern design movement. Paul Rand's first career in media promotion and cover design ran from 1937 to 1941, his second career in advertising design ran from 1941 to 1954, and his third career in corporate identification began in 1954. Paralleling these three careers there has been a consuming interest in design education and Paul Rand's fourth career as an educator started at Cooper Union in 1942. He taught at Pratt Institute in 1946 and in 1956 he accepted a post at Yale University's graduate school of design where he held the title of Professor of Graphic Design.
In 1937 Paul launched his first career at Esquire. Although he was only occasionally involved in the editorial layout of that magazine, he designed material on its behalf and turned out a spectacular series of covers for Apparel Arts, a quarterly published in conjunction with Esquire. In spite of a schedule that paid no heed to regular working hours or minimum wage scales, he managed in these crucial years to find time to design an impressive array of covers for other magazines, particularly Directions. From 1938 on his work was a regular feature of the exhibitions of the Art Directors Club.
Paul spent fourteen years in advertising where he demonstrated the importance of the art director in advertising and helped break the isolation that once surrounded the art department. The final thought of his Thoughts on Design is worth repeating: "Even if it is true that commonplace advertising and exhibitions of bad taste are indicative of the mental capacity of the man in the street, the opposing argument is equally valid. Bromidic advertising catering to that bad taste merely perpetuates that mediocrity and denies him one of the most easily accessible means of aesthetic development."
In 1954 when Paul Rand decided that for him Madison Avenue was no longer a two-way street and he resigned from the Weintraub agency, he was cited as one of the ten best art directors by the Museum of Modern Art. This was the same year in which he received the gold medal from the Art Directors Club for his Morse Code advertisement addressed to David Sarnoff of RCA.
A sample spread from this volume can be viewed here.
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